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Dhamma as Categories in the Dhammapada
Bhikkhu Thich Nhat-Tu

No other term in traditional Indian thought is more important, more complex in the variety of its technical usage from system to system and therefore more difficult to translate simply Dhamma or dharma. In Vedic literature, the word dhamma signifies an agent i.e. supporter or sustainer. It is also linked to three other key terms rta (cosmic order), satya (truth) and vrata (vow). More frequently, its seems to mean religious prescription or ritual and the like [Grim (1981): 218-9]. In the Brhadaaranyaka Upani.sad [I. 4. 11], the word dharma is identical with aatman or Brahman as the reality or source of the universe.

In Buddhism, the definition of dhamma are quite different from the above. According to Kalupahana, the dearest definition of dhamma claimed to have been discovered by the Buddha is identical with two things: "(a) dependent arising (pa.ticca samuppaada) and (b) freedom (nibbaana). All other uses of the term dhamma can be subsumed under one on the other of these two meanings." [EB. IV. 441].

In the Pali texts, the word dhamma is defined as thing absent of a being or a soul [Als. 48]. In other words, dhamma or dhammas are things, which are unreal because they are dependent by nature. Another definition of dhamma also found in Theravaada texts is that, "dhammas are those that bear their own nature" (attano lakkhanam dhaarentiiti dhammaa or sabhaavadharanato dhammaa) [Vism. 481; VbhA. 45]. In the Dhammapada, the word dhamma as multi-significant term can be rendered philosophically as "categories." By categories here are meant things and phenomena, mental or physical, material or non-material, sensible or insensible and conditioned or unconditioned. In other words, whatever is name-able or unnameable, thinkable or unthinkable and real or unreal is dhamma [Dhp. 109, 353, 273, 279].

In particular contexts of the Dhammapada, the word dhamma is to signify actions, mental, bodily and verbal [Dhp. 1-2] or the truth [Dhp. 70, 176, 205] or the Buddha’s teachings in general [Dhp. 20, 44-5, 79, 164] or moral principle [Dhp. 266, 257] or natural principle [Dhp. 24, 46] or the righteousness [Dhp. 84, 87, 167] and Nibbaana [Dhp. 115, 217, 393].

The main purpose of this chapter is to study dhamma as such categories. There are mainly two kinds of category, viz, conditioned an unconditioned. Conditioned categories are ruupa (category of matter), citta (category of mind), caitta or catasika (category of mental concomitants), and viprayakta (category of forces which are neither material nor mental. Unconditioned category is known as asamskrta (category of Nibbaana). Impermanence and non-substance (anicca and anatta) are two striking characteristics of all conditioned categories while the characteristics, unoriginated (agaata, abhuuta, akaata), permanent (nicca, dhuva), non-deteriorating and non-secessionist (accuta, anirodha, amata) are nature of the unconditioned category (asankhatadhaatu) that is Nibbaana.

1. Dhamma as Non-Substantiality

According to Aristotle, there are ten categories, namely, substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, position, possession, action and passion. According to Kanaada (c.150-50 B.C) the founder of the Vai'se.sika school of Indian philosophy there are six categories (which he calls padaarthas) namely substance (dravya), quality (guna), action (karman), universal (saamaanya), particularity (visesa) and inherence (samavaaya). These two systems of categories are mainly different on the basic of the emphasis, less or more in detail, but they are similar in the sense that both consider being or existence as substance which is real.

The concept of dhamma as conditioned categories in Buddhism generally and in the Dhammapada particularly is momentary. "They are neither permanent, nor substantial nor entitative. They are components, the components are real." [EB. IV. 460]. One must consider that this distinction between the Buddhist teachings of categories and those of both Aristotle and Kanaada actually reflects the difference between the Buddhist and both of traditional Indian and Greek ways of thinking.

The Dhammapada verses 277, 279 speak of the non-substantiality of all conditioned categories as necessary principle an attribute of all dhammaa. The verses are as follows:

When one perceive through wisdom that all conditioned categories are non-substantial, then one is turned away from suffering, and this is the path to purity" (v. 279).

When one perceive through wisdom that all conditioned categories are transient, then one is turned away from suffering, and this is the path to purity" (v. 271).

The main idea of the Buddhist analysis of all conditioned categories as non-substantial is to reject the view of the existence of a permanent entity, which in the other systems of Indian thought was called the soul (aatman) or in the Aristotelian system the permanent substance which was held to underline the whole of existence including man.

The term dhamma in the Pali texts is to refer to things, which arises and vanishes, dependently on cases. They are sometimes called Sa"nkhaara and sometimes Sa"nkhata, which consist of both physical and conditioned phenomena. The common features to these all conditioned phenomena are impermanent and non-substantial. No school of Buddhism admitted the conditional categories to be things in themselves as substance or even as qualities cohering in a substance [EB. IV. 454]. In other words, all the conditioned categories are characterized as impermanent, a source of suffering and unsubstantial. Impermanent refer to causal origination of all conditioned categories suffering to the unrestful and conflicting and unsatisfactory nature of the same conditioned things in their defiled state to be found in ordinary person as opposed to their purified state to be found in the Arahats. [EB. IV. 457].

Thus, according to Buddhism, all conditioned categories are universally and uniformly dependent arising (pa.ticca samuppaada = anatta). This uniformity and universality is objectively attributable nature of all conditioned categories, therefore, "Whether the Tathaagatas were to arise in this world or not, this statue of all categories, this relatedness of all categories has indeed remained." [M. I. 190].

2. Dhamma as Category of Action

In addition to the classification of categories into conditioned and unconditioned, the totality of all dhammas as actions can be classified from the point of view of ethics into three categories as kusala-dhamma (those that are wholesome), akusala-dhamma (those that are unwholesome), and avyaakata-dhamma (those that neither wholesome nor unwholesome or neutral.

By kusala-dhamma is meant those instances of consciousness, those body and those mental concomitants which are ethically wholesome both for oneself and others, present and future. Likewise, all instances of consciousness, those body and those mental concomitants, which are ethically unwholesome both for oneself and others, present and future, are called akusala-dhamma. The category called avyaakata has four subdivisions, namely, the resultant consciousness (vipaaka-citta), the functional consciousness (kriyaa-citta), the elements of matter (ruupa) and the unconditioned element (nibbaana).

Wholesome and unwholesome categories mainly cover ten actions included in three organs producing karma. viz, body, speech and mind. Bodily actions consist of either taking life, stealing and not-adultery. Verbal actions are of lying, slander, harsh words and gossip or to abstain from lying, from slander, from harsh words and from gossip. Mental actions are of craving, hatred and ignorance or to abstain from craving, from hatred and from wrong views. It should be noticed here that of these three organs producing actions, mind (citta) or volition (cetanaa) is considered as the guiding force of all actions, wholesome or unwholesome. The Dhammapada says that:

Mind is the fore-runner of all actions, wholesome or unwholesome, mental, physical or verbal. Mind is chief. They are mind-made. If one speaks or acts with an evil mind, suffering follows him as the wheel follows the hoof-print of the ox that draws the cart. Likewise, if one speaks or acts with a pure mind, happiness follows him like a shadow that never leaves him" [Dhp. 1-2].

That is to say whatever is morally unwholesome or belongs to unwholesome is necessarily directed by mind. Mind first arises, then follow physical, verbal or mental actions, and vice versa. It is obviously that mind or consciousness always servers as the leading force of all human actions. It is powerful action whereas physical and verbal actions are actions productive. As a leading force or fore runner, if mind is pure then productive actions must be wholesome; if mind as forerunner, is impure then productive actions must be unwholesome.

According the Dhammapada verses quoted, human actions are directed by human mind, therefore, man himself is the maker of his own destiny. He has none to blame for his lot. He is the maker of it and he is heir to his kamma. He can not escape from the results of his kamma:

Neither in the sky, nor in mid-ocean, nor in entering a mountain cave, is found that place on earth where abiding one may escape from the consequences of an evil deed [Dhp. 127].

All this implies that human happiness or suffering, liberation or bondage is due to his own deeds wholesome or unwholesome in the world, during his life, without any least reference to God:

By oneself alone is evil done, by oneself is oneself is one defiled. By oneself does oneself avoid evil, alone is one purified. Purity and impurity depend on oneself. No one can purify another [Dhp. 165].

3. Dhamma as Buddhavacana

By Buddhavacana is meant all the teachings of the Buddha namely Tipi.taka (Suttapi.taka, Vinayapi.taka and Abhidhammapi.taka). According to another division, Buddhavacana can be reduced into Dhamma and Vinaya. In a shortest form, Buddhavacana can be reduced into Dhamma, meaning the teachings of the Buddha. "It is a dhamma said to be well-proclaimed (svaakkhaato), empirical (sanditthiko), not confined to any particular time (alaaliko), verifiable (ehipassiko), practical (opanayiko) and to be experienced by the wise (paccattam veditabbo vinnuuhi) [D. II. 93, 217, 222, 228; D. III. 5, 102, 227; M. I. 37, 141-2, 320; M. II. 120ff].

Generally, the category dhamma in the Dhammapada is one of the Triple-gem, viz the Buddha, the Dhamma ad his Sangha [Dhp. 296-8]. This Dhamma is presented in terms of popular Buddhist doctrines such as the four Noble truth (Ariyasaccaani), the eightfold path (being the last Noble truth namely, the path to Nibbaana negatively absent of craving, hatred and ignorance), the law of dependent origination (prat tya-samutp~ da), the law of kamma and three characteristics of all conditioned phenomena (impermanence, suffering and non-substantiality).

The four Noble truths are dukkha or suffering, the cause of this suffering, Nibbaana as the unconditioned happiness, absent of all sufferings and their causes and the path leading to Nibbaana, i.e. the middle path or the eightfold path. Suffering are of birth, decay, old age, death, not seeing the beloved, sight of the unbeloved, cherished desires being unsatisfied. The cause of this suffering is attachment (ta"nhaa) as the Dhammapada, verse 216 states thus "From craving springs grief, from craving springs fear" [Dhp. 210]. The Dhammapada also considers all moral fetters or defilement such as craving, hatred, ignorance, envy, pride, wrong view etc. are causes leading to suffering [Dhp. 212-5]. Nibbaana, the complete cessation of suffering is achieved by the total eradication of all forms of ta"nhaa and moral defilement [Dhp. 221-2, 226, 236, 244-7, 327, 385, 391, 423]. The path to Nibbaana is called the middle path, which avoids the extreme of self-indulgence that weakens one’s intellect, and extreme of self-indulgence that retards one’s moral progress. It is as follows right views, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration. This eightfold path can be reduced to morality (siila), concentration (samaadhi) and wisdom (pa~n~naa). This is emphatically stated as: "The best of truths are the four Noble truths. The best of paths is the eightfold path … This is the only path. There is none other for the purity of vision. Entering upon that path you will make an end of suffering."

Regarding the moral value of the Buddha’s teachings the Dhammapada says that, "Who practices according to dhamma, eradicating passion, ill will and ignorance, cleanly comprehending the dhamma, his mind freed from moral defilement and no longer longing to this world or to the next" [Dhp. 273-5].

The Dhammapada also informs us that the practitioner of such a dhamma definitely leading a happily life and will reach Nibbaana. The descriptions are as follows, "He who drinks in the dhamma lives happily with a serene mind" [Dhp. 20] and " Those who practice according the well-expounded dhamma will reach the other shore (Nibbaana), having passed the realm of samsaara" [Dhp. 79]. Therefore such a sublime dhamma should be followed and practice by everyone who wants to live peacefully and mindfully.

Anyone, who abides in the dhamma, who delights in the dhamma, who meditates on the dhamma and is ever mindful of the dhamma, does not full away from the dhamma of the virtuous, the dhamma sublime [Dhp. 86].

4. Dhamma as Principles

By the principles are meant the universal truths, which are inherent in anything. In Buddhist epistemology, principles are the essence of being and the ground of all valid knowledge. Two main kinds of principles are fundamentally discussed in the Dhammapada, namely, moral principles and natural principles.

The moral principles are also called moral causation, which is a dialectic causation of good and bad deeds leading happiness and unhappiness. Good deeds (dhamma) and bad deeds (adhamma) are definitely not of equal fruition. Bad deeds lead to dukkha while good deeds to sukha. But "this should be construed as an absolute and invariable law, permanent and eternal, as it is in the absolutistic systems, nor as a divinely ordained principle as in theistic systems, nor even as a transcendent and ineffable truth as in existentialist origination (pa.ticca samuppaada) and is strongly backed by the experience of moral situations, both on the part of ordinary human beings on occasions and on the part of "Enlightened Ones" (Buddha) always [Dhp. 364].

The following are some examples of moral principle depicted in the Dhammapada:

Not at any time are enmities appeased here through enmity, but they are appeased through non-enmity. This is an ancient law" "Those of them realize it have their quarrels calmed thereby. [EB. IV. 446]

An evil deed is better left undone. A misdeed hereafter torments one. A good deed is better done, which, having done, one does not later repent [Dhp. 5-6]

Watchful of speech, well restrained in mind let him do not unskillful through body. Let him purify these three ways of action and win the path realized by the enlightened" [Dhp. 314].

Here he grieves, hereafter he grieves, in both worlds the evildoer grieves. He grieves and perishes, seeing his own impure deed," Likewise, "Here he rejoices, hereafter he rejoices, in both worlds the good-doer rejoices. He rejoices, exceedingly rejoices, seeing his own pure deeds" [Dhp. 281].

So far as the natural principles are concerned, the Dhammapada introduces to us the principle of cause and effect found in the world of conditioned things and phenomena, the principle of dependent origination and three inherent characteristics of all phenomena, viz, impermanence, suffering and non-substantiality.

The formula of dependent origination is as follows:

Because of ignorance, mental formation

Because of mental formation, consciousness

Because of consciousness, psycho-physical existence

Because of psycho-physical existence, the six organs of sense (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body (the sense of touch) and mind).

Because of the six organs of sense, contact

Because of contact, sensation of feeling.

Because of sensation, craving.

Because of craving, attachment or grasping.

Because of attachment, becoming or worldly existence

Because of becoming, birth

Because of birth, decay, death, grief, suffering.

This chain of causation beginning with ignorance and resulting suffering is mainly concerned with human being. The fundamental theory applied to all conditioned things and phenomena and all sentient beings is that "When this exist that exists. When this appear, that appear. When this does not exist, that does not exist", when this disappears, that disappears" [Dhp. 15-6]. This general formula explains the world of phenomena, physical or psychical, material or mental is conditioned, inter-related existed or mutual disappeared.

The following three characteristics known as inherent nature of all phenomena are impermanence (anicca), suffering (dukkha) and non-substantiality (anatta). The Dhammapada states that only the person who realizes these three characteristics of all phenomena can turn away from suffering and lead to peaceful life [Dhp. 227-9].

Anicca in Buddhism can be understood as causal dialectics denoting the attributes of all phenomena as psychical or physical motioning and changing. It should not be limitedly understood as changing position in the space, but as changing momentarily, in general. Our mind, a stream of consciousness is also a process of continuous changing. Our thinking at this particular moment will not be the same as the thinking at another moment. All constituents constituting human being such as physical form (pertaining to body), feeling (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral), perception (sight etc.), dispositions (latent, formative, phenomena) and consciousness are always in stream of universal flux. The body is not the eternal soul for it tends towards destruction. Neither feeling nor perception nor disposition nor consciousness, together constitute the eternal soul, for were it so, feeling etc. would not Likewise tend towards destruction. So it must be said of all physical forms whatever past, present, on to be, subjective, far or near, high or low; this I am not, this is not my eternal soul [Dhp. 135, 300; S. II. 94; S. III. 66].

It is important to remember that time is also a stream of flowing, it is, therefore, changing and transient. At every moment, time flows and flows forever. The past is a conventional landmark for whatever will happen. The present is a non-stopping state. That is to say all three landmarks of time are momentarily flowing. Because of this stream of flowing, every thing is becoming and again becoming. Thus the impermanent, changing and motioning of time is mutually related to that of objects, things and phenomena. The objects changing are undetectable from time motioning and vice versa. The changing objects are changing on the axis of time. Time is a moving line to mark the landmark of that changing. It is, therefore, to talk of the impermanent of the world is to talk of the stream of flowing of time and objects. Consequently through this perceiving, one realizes the formula of non-substantiality of all phenomena. In the Dhammapada, the verse runs as follows:

One who knows that this body and all phenomena are impermanent like froth and comprehends that they are insubstantial as a mirage, will cut the flowers of M~ ra and pass out of sight of the king of death. [Dhp. 46].

5. Dhamma as Righteousness

According to Bhikkhuni Tin Lien [1994: 72] the word dhamma in the Dhammapada verses 46, 84, 87, 167, 168, 169, 242 and 248 mean righteousness. Dhamma in the sense of righteousness figures very prominently in the Buddha’s explanation of social and political philosophy, as Kalupahana rightly states that dhamma as righteousness is "the basis of social and political philosophy of the Buddha"[EB. IV. 448].

The Dhammapada, rejecting the traditional Brahmanical theory of the four-fold caste system, explains the evolution of society and social institutions ,which are based on human wholesome will and actions. According to the Buddha, "the social status of a person is not to be determined by his birth in a particular caste having certain specific functions or duties (svadharma) but on the basis of his actions (karma), which are in turn evaluated on the basis of the moral principle (dhamma)" [EB. IV. 448].

Like the Agganna suttanta of Diigha Nikaaya (pp. 80ff), Vasala Sutta and Vaasettha Sutta of the Suttanipaata (pp. 21ff; 115ff), the Dhammapada morally rejects the Brahman claims to superiority on the basis of birth. The verses run as follows:

Not by wearing platted hair, nor by lineage, nor by caste, does one become a Braahmana. Only he who realizes the truth and the dhamma is pure; he is a Braahmana" [Dhp. 393]

I do not call him a Braahmana just because he is born from the womb of a Brahmana mother. He is just a bhovaadii braahmin if he not free from moral defilement. Him I call a braahmana, who is free from moral defilement and attachment" [Dhp. 396].

Caste-system, unfair, unequal and immoral is unacceptable to the Buddha. Almost forty-one verses of Braahmana vagga of the Dhammapada are moral discourses to promote the true value of virtue and wisdom of human being while rejecting the unjust or unrighteous way of Brahmanical thinking.

The definition of a Braahmana given by the Buddha in the moral context, as the fearless, the noble, the hero, the great sage, the conqueror, the desireless, the washer of defilement [Dhp. 422] or the holy man, the Munii who has reached the ends of births with superior wisdom [Dhp. 423] or an Arahat [Dhp. 420] or the well-gone and the enlightened one (the Buddha) [Dhp. 419] are fundamentally based on righteousness, morality, concentration and wisdom of a person, and never on the basis of birth or caste. "It would be almost impossible to give any meaning other than "righteousness" to the term dhamma in the above context" [EB. IV. 449].

It seems that righteousness as a cause and happiness as consequence can serve as the criteria to judge a person moral or immoral, a society good or bad. This contention is implied in the following verse of the Dhammapada: "observe righteousness. Do not observe unrighteousness. One who observers righteousness lives happily both in this world and in the next" [Dhp. 169].

In addition to this, a righteousness person who will never do any evil for his own sake or for the sake of others, nor does he wish for sons and daughters or for wealth or for a kingdom by doing evil, nor does he wish for success by unfair means [Dhp. 84].

Another definition is given to the righteous in the Dhammapada. It describes thus, "The righteousness is one who judges and decides anything in accordance with the dhamma. He is also one who safeguards the dhamma" [Dhp. 257]. On the basis of righteousness, the righteous discards all evils, cuts off all immoral fetters such as covetousness, ill will, wrong views. He will not cling to sensual pleasures and is completely delivered of all bonds

6. Dhamma as Unconditioned Category: Nibbaana

Nibbaana as an unconditioned category is the ultimate dhamma in the Dhammapada particularly, and in Buddhism generally. The word "unconditioned category" is a philosophically translation from the Pali "asankhata-dhaatu" which means the unoriginated (ajaata, abhuuta, akata) the permanent (anicca, dhuva), non-deteriorating and non-cessationist (accuta, anirodha, amata) as its natures opposed to anicca and anatta as nature of conditioned phenomena (sankhata).

Generally speaking, the concept of Nibbaana is well-interpreted in negative descriptions, such as, end of greed (ragakkhaya), and of hatred (dosakkhaya) and end of delusion (mohakkhaya). Theses negative descriptions are based on the fact that greed, hatred and delusion are the roots of unwholesome deeds (akusala-muula) leading to suffering state of living, therefore, Nibbaana as ultimate happiness must be freed from those immoral roots. Some other negative expressions to denote nibbaana are also found in the Pali texts, such as, "cessation of sa"msaara", "freedom from dukkha," "freedom from fear", destruction of unconditioned things. Nibbaana should not be misunderstood as "absolute nothing" or "nihilism" or "annihilation" as Povissin (p. 150), and Oldenberg (p. 273) or as an utopia as Gaur, wrongly explained [1989: 481].

In the Dhammapada, although Nibbaana is said to be ineffable or indescribable [Dhp. 218], and it is in fact well understood by metaphorical statements and negative expressions. It is negatively expressed in terms of "end of dukkha" [Dhp. 376, 402], "freedom from craving and doubt" [Dhp. 411-2, 414], "end of all existences" [Dhp. 438], "freedom from conditional things" [Dhp. 348, 283], "cessation of craving and moral defilement" [Dhp. 186-7, 284-5], "no sorrow" [Dhp. 225], "cutting of all passions" [Dhp. 225, 374, 411], and "deathlessness." [Dhp. 202, 414]. It is also positively expressed in terms of "perfect peace" [Dhp. 414], "crossing ocean of samsaara" [Dhp. 184, 203-4, 368, 381] and "supreme or highest bliss or happiness" [Dhp. 368].

Nibbaana is also metaphorically expressed in terms of "a quiet place" [Dhp. 225], "an unchangeable place" [Dhp. 323] and "untroden country or a place one has never been before" [Dhp. 85-6, 414]. Nibbaana is also metaphorically described as "the other shore." It should be noticed here that" most of the references to Nibbana obviously must be understood figuratively and seem to refer to a state of mind" [Sharma (1985): 138], which is freed from all moral fetters and defilement as negatively mentioned above. "Moreover, it is state of mind which can be attained here and now (verses 89, 412, 423). The state of mind associated with nirvaa.na is characterized by stability, tranquillity and depth (verses 81-82, 91, 95 etc.).

According to the Dhammapada, Nibbaana can be attained by practicing morality, concentration and wisdom as well as the Dhamma of the Buddha. Here we quote such references as follows:

He who is established in mindfulness, through cultivation of tranquillity and insight development practice, experiences the supreme happiness. (verse 27)

A Bhikkhu who takes delight in mindfulness is indeed very close to Nibbana (verse 32).

One who devotes himself to solitude, detachment will realize Nibbana (verse 75).

Those with mind well-developed in the seven factors of enlightenment and who had rid themselves of all craving rejoice in their abandonment of attachment… have realized Nibbana in the word (verse 89).

If you can keep yourself calm and quite, like a broken going which is no longer resonant, you are sure to realize Nibbana (verse 134).

One who takes refuges in the Buddha, the Dhamma and Sangha, sees Magga insight with four Noble truths … leads to the cession of dukkha (verse 191).

Hunger is the greatest ailment, khandhas are the greatest ill. The wise knowing them as they really are realize Nibbana (verse 203).

One who lives exercising loving-kindness and is devoted to the teaching of the Buddha, will realizes Nibbana (verse 368).

He who has concentration as well as wisdom is, indeed, close to Nibbana (verse 372).

Every time to clearly comprehends the arising and the perishing of the khandhas … that is the way to Nibbana (verse 374), and

One who frequently feels joy and is devoted to the teaching of the Buddha will realize Nibbana (verse381).

To conclude, Nibbaana, as unconditioned category in the Dhammapada although being Trans-description as its nature, can be metaphorically expressed in terms of "place" and "the other shore" and described negatively as freedom from all moral defilement. The indescribability or Trans-description of Nibbana does not amount to unknowability or annihilation of all activities. Because on the one side it is the destruction of the three fires of lust, hatred and ignorance and on the other side, it is the perfection of all-human morality and wisdom. It is attainable by self-effort here and now.

Bibliography

1. Texts

Als. = Dhammasangani A.t.thakathaa (Atthasaalinii) PTS. 1897 p. 48.

Dhp. = Dhammapada, PTS edition.

EB. = Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, I-V, ed. G. P. Malalasekera. (Ceylon: 1945-1994)

M. = Majjhimanikaaya, I-IV, ed. V. Trenckner, R. Chalmers, Mrs. Rhys Davids. (London: PTS, 1888-1902)

MA. = Majjhimanikaaya A.t.thakathaa

VbhA. = Vibhanga Atthakathaa (Sammohavinodanii), ed. A.P. Buddhadatta, PTS. 1923.

Vism. = Visuddhimagga, ed. C.A.F. Rhys Davids, PTS. 1975.

2. Studies

Gaur, V.P. (1989). "Maxism and Buddhism; A Study of Their Utopian Principles" in N.H. Satani and H.S. Prasad (eds.) Amalaa Praj~na, Sspects of Buddhist Studies. Delhi: Srii Sattguru Publication.

Grim, Keith (ed.) (1989). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. New York: Harper &Row.

Kalupahana, D.J, "Dhamma (I)" in Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Vol. IV.

Karunaratne, Upali "Dhamma (II)" in Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Vol. 4.

Oldenberg, H. (1992). Buddha, His Life, His Doctrine, His Order. Delhi.

Poussin, L. de la Valleue. (1982). The Way to Nirvaa.na. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1st ed. 1917.

Sharma, A. (1985). Spokes of the Wheel. Delhi: BBP.

Tin, Daw Mya. (tr.) (1990). The Dhammpada: Verses and Stories. Sarnath: Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, 1st Ed. 1985.

Tin-Lien, Bhikkhuni (1994). "The Concept of Dhamma in the Dhammapada," M.Phil Dissertation, Department of Buddhist Studies, Delhi University.

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Sincere thanks to Bhikkhuni Tuong Lien for retyping this article.

 


Updated: 3-5-2000

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