- Alayavijnana - Store Consciousness
- Ven. Dr. Walpola Rahula
In the Yogacara (Vijnanavada) School of Buddhism, alayavijnana
is one of the most important doctrines developed by Asanga (fourth century A.C.). He
divides the vijnanaskandha (Aggregate of Conciousness) the fifth of the five skandhas,
into three different aspects or layers, namely, citta, manas and vijnana.
In the Theravada Tipitaka as well as in the Pali Commentaries, these three terms - citta,
manas, vijnana - are considered as synonyms denoting the same thing. The Sarvistivada
also takes them as synonyms. Even the Lankavatarasutra, which is purely a
Mahayana text, calls them synonyms although their separate functions are mentioned
elsewhere in the same sutra. Vasubandhu, too, in his Vimsatikavijnapti-matratasiddhi
considers them as synonyms. Since any one of these three terms - citta, manas,
vijnanas - represents some aspect, even though not all aspects, of the fifth
Aggregate vijnanaskandha, they may roughly be considered as synonyms.
However, for Asanga, citta, manas and vijnana are
three different and distinct aspects of the vyjnanaskandha. He defines this
Aggregate as follows:
'What is the definition of the Aggregate of Consciousness (vijnanaskandha)? It
is mind (citta), mental organ (manas) and also consciousness (vijnana).
"And there what is mind (citta)? It is alayavijnana
(Store-Consciousness) containing all seeds (sarvabijaka), impregnated with the
traces (impressions) (vasanaparibhavita) of Aggregates (skandha),
Elements (dhatu) and Spheres (ayatana) ...
'What is mental organ (manas)? It is the object of alayavijnana
always having the nature of self-notion (self-conceit) (manyanatmaka) associated
with four defilements, viz. the false idea of self (atmadrsti), self-love (atmasneha),
the conceit of 'I am' (asmimana) and ignorance (avidya) ...
'What is consciousness (vijnana)? It consists of the six groups of
consciousness (sad vijnanakayah), viz. visual consciousness (caksurvijnana),
auditory (srotra), olfactory (ghrana), gustatory (jihva),
tactile (kaya), and mental consciousness (manovijnana) ...
Thus we can see that vijnana represents the simple reaction or
response of the sense-organs when they come in contact with external objects. This is the
uppermost or superficial aspect or layer of the vijnanaskandha. Manas
represents the aspect of its mental functioning, thinking, reasoning, conceiving ideas,
etc. Citta, which is here called alayavijnana, represents the deepest,
finest and subtlest aspect or layer of the Aggregate of Consciousness. It contains all the
traces or impressions of the past actions and all good and bad future potentialities. The Sandhinirmocana-sutra
also says that alayavijnana is called citta (Tibetan sems).
It is generally believed that alayavijnana is purely a Mahayana
doctrine and that nothing about it is found in Hinayana. But in the Mahayanasangraha,
Asanga himself says that in the Sravakayana (= Hinayana) it is mentioned by
synonyms (paryaya) and refers to a passage in the Ekottaragama which
reads: 'People (praja) like the alaya (alayarata), are fond of the alaya (alayarama),
are delighted in the alaya (alayasammudita), are attached to the alaya (alayabhirata).
When the Dharma is preached for the destruction of the alaya, they wish to listen
(susrusanti) and lend their ears (srotram avadadhanti), they put forth a will for the
perfect knowledge (ajnacittam upasthapayanti) and follow the path of Truth
(dharmanudharma-pratipanna). When the Tathagata appears in the world (pradurbhava), this
marvellous (ascarya) and extraordinary (adbhuta) Dharma appears in the world.'
Lamotte identifies this Ekottaragama passage with the
following passage in the Pali Anguttaranikaya (A II, p.131): Alayarama
bhikkhave paja alayarata alayasammudita, sa Tathagatena analaye dhamme desiyamane
sussuyati sotam odahati annacittam upattapeti. Tathagatassa bhikkhave arahato
sammasambuddhassa patubhava ayam pathamo acchariyo abbhuto dhammo patubhavati.
Besides this Anguttara passage, the term alaya in the
same sense is found in several other places of the Pali Canon. The Pali Commentaries
explain this term as 'attachment to the five sense-pleasures", and do not go deeper
than that. But this also is an aspect of the alayavijnana.
In the Lankavatarasutra the term tathagatagarbha is
used as a synonym for alayavijnana and is described as 'luminous by nature' (prakrtiprabhasvara)
and 'pure by nature' (prakrtiparisuddha) but appearing as impure 'because it is
sullied by adventitious defilements' (agantuklesopaklistataya). In the Anguttaranikaya,
citta is described as 'luminous' (pabhassara), but it is 'sullied by adventitious
minor defilements' (agantukehi upakkilesehi upakkilittham). One may notice here
that alaya-vijnana (or tathagatgarbha) and citta are described
almost by the same terms. We have seen earlier that the Sandhi-nirmocana-sutra
says that alayavijnana is also called citta. Asanga too mentions that it
is named citta.
It is this alayavijnana or citta that is considered
by men as their "Soul', 'Self', 'Ego' or 'Atman'. It should be remembered as a
concrete example, that Sati, one of the Buddha's disciples, took vinnan
(vijnana) in this sense and that the Buddha reprimanded him for this wrong view.
The attainment of Nirvana is achieved by 'the revolution of alayavijnana'
which is called asrayaparavrtti. The same idea is conveyed by the expression alayasamugghata
- 'uprooting of alaya' - which is used in the Pali Canon as a synonym for Nirvana. Here it
should be remembered, too, that analaya, 'no-alaya', is another synonym for
The alayavijnanaparavrtti is sometimes called bijaparavrtti
- 'revolution of the seeds' - as well. Bija here signifies the 'seeds' of
defilements (samklesikadharmabija) which cause the continuity of samsara.
By the 'revolution of these seeds' one attains Nirvana. Again the Pali term khinabija,
which is used to denote an arahant whose seeds of defilements are destroyed', expresses
the same idea.
Thus one may see that, although not developed as in the Mahayana, the
original idea of alayavijnana was already there in the Pali Canon of the
Source: Buddhist Council of NSW, http://www.zip.com.au/~lyallg/