bản Internet 2001
Bàlukà. (S). Sand; sands, e.g. of Ganges, hà sa implying countless.
Sa bà ha.
Svàha (S). Hail! So be it. Ritual term pronounced at the end of the prayer. Also Tát bà
Sràmanera (S). Novice-monk.
Sa di giới.
The ten commandments, or precepts taken by the novice-monk.
Sa di ni.
Sa di ni
giới. The ten precepts taken by the novice-nun.
Hằng hà sa số thế giới. Worlds as numerous as the sands of Ganges.
Sa ka la,
Sa ga la. Sakala (S). Actual Siàlkot.
la. Sàgara (S). Ocen of Nàgas. Also Hàm hải Sa kiệt la long.
Sàla (S). Sal tree.
lân. Sàlavana (S). Sal grove.
Sa la song
thụ. The twin trees in the grove Sa la lâm in which Sàkyamuni entered nirvàna.
Sa ma đế.
Sammatìya (S). A sect. Also Chính lượng bộ.
Sa ma Vệ
đà. Sàmaveda (S). The 3rd of four books of Veda.
Sahà (S). The world around us, the present world. Also Ta bà
Sa ma lị
ca. Sannagarika (S). A sect. Also Mật lâm sơn bộ.
Sramana (S). (1) Ascetics of all kinds. (2) Buddhist monks who have left the family and
quitted the passions. Explained by công lao toilful achievement, cần tức diligent
quieting (of the mind and the passions), tịnh chí purity of mind, bần đạo poverty.
Sa môn Cồ
đàm. Sramana Gautama (S). An epithet of the Buddha.
Sa môn quả.
The fruit, or rebirth, resulting from the practices of the sramana.
Sa môn quả
kinh. Sàmannaphalasuttanta (P).
đà. Svàgata (S). Welcome. Also thiện lai.
Mrsà (S). Falsehood, lie. Also không thật.
Mithyà (S). Untrue, wrong. Also Vọng, hư giả.
Ksamayati (S). To seek forgiveness, patience or indulgence, ksamà meaning patience,
forbearance, tr. as sám quá repentance or regret for error; also as confession. It
especially refers to the regular confessional service for monk and for nun.
Khamàpanà (P). Repentance, confession.
Ksamayati (S). To have patience with, to forbear; ask for consideration or pardon.
Sám ma y.
Clothing made of ksauma, i.e. wild flax.
The rules for confession and pardon.
pháp. The mode of action, or ritual, at the confessional; also the various types of
confessional, e.g. of Quán Âm, Di Đà, etc.
Confession and forgiveness.
San đà dạ
Tì la đế tử. Sanjaya Vairattìputra (S).
Sandhinirmochana-s-tra (S). Giải thâm mật kinh. Scripture Unlocking the Mysteries.
Ksetra (S). Land, fields,country, place; also a universe consisting of three thousand
lợi. Ksatriya (S). The second, or warrior and ruling cast.
Ksetra (S). Land, country. Field, plot of land. Also nhất sát, sát hải.
Land and sea.
Lands, countless as the dust.
Ksana (S). An indefinite space of time, a moment, an instant; the shortest measure of
time, as kalpa is the longest.
sinh diệt. Ksanabhanga (S). All things are in continuous flow, born and destroyed
every instant. Perpetual and simultaneous transformations of thought.
tam thế. The moments past, present, future.
vô thường. Not a moment is permanent, but passes through the stages of birth,
stay, change, death.
To kill, to slay, to murder, to put to death; to cut down, cut off.
The murderer, a name for Màra.
Precept on not-killing.
The karma resulting from killing.
To slay demons; a ghost of the slain; a murderous demon; a metaphor for impermanence.
Pànaghàta (P). To take life, kill the living, or any conscious being; the taking of
human life offends against the major commands, of animal life against the less stringent
commands. Suicide also leads to severe penalties.
Ksìnàsrava (S). Thief-destroyer, i.e. conqueror of the passions, an arhat.
To kill one's mind; murderous mind.
thân. To kill oneself.
Rùpa (S). Outward appearance, form, colour, matter, thing; the desirable, especially the
feminine attraction. It is defined as that which has resistance; or which changes and
disappears, i.e. the phenomenal; also as hiển sắc colour and quality, hình sắc form
or the measurable, and biểu sắc mode or action.
Xem sắc dục.
Rùpa-skandha. Xem sắc uẩn.
bào. The material as a bubble, impermanent.
cái. The concealing, or misleading, character of the visible, or material, the
seeming concealing reality.
Visible objects, the realm of vision, or form.
chúng. Xem sắc ấm, sắc uẩn.
cánh thiên, sắc định. Akanistha (S). The highest of the material heavens.
Rùparàga (S). Sexual desire, or passion; lusts of the flesh, cocupiscence. Ham mê sắc
dục, to indulge in carnal desires, in the sins of the flesh.
Rùpadhàtu, rùpavacara, rùpaloka (S). Any material world, or world of form; it
especially refers to the second of the Trailokya tam giới, the Brahmalokas above the
Devalokas, comprising sixteen or seventeen or eighteen "Heavens of Form" divided
into four Dhyànas.
không ngoại đạo. Heretics who denied material existence (and consequently sought
self-control, or nirvàna.
căn. Rùpa-jìvitindriyà (S). Vital power of physical faculties.
sắc xứ. The entrances, or places, where the organs and objects of physical sense
meet, ten in all, cf ngũ nhập. Also one of the twelve nidànas.
pháp. Rùpa-dharma (S). 11 Form-elements: (1) nhãn caksu, eye; (2) nhĩ srotra, ear;
(3) tỉ ghràna, nose; (4) thiệt jihvà, tongue; (5) thân kàya, body; (6) sắc
rùpa, form; (7) thanh sabda sound; (8) hương gandha, smell; (9) vị rasa, taste; (10)
xúc sparsa, touch; (11) pháp dharmà-yatanasamgr-hìtam-rùpam, forms included in
dharma-àyatana, elements as objects of consciousness: (a) cực lược sắc, a
substantial form analyzed to utmost, the smallest atom; (b) cực hánh sắc, an
unsubstantial form as aerial space or colour analyzed to utmost, the remotest atom; (c) định
quả sắc, a form produced by meditation; (d) vô biểu sắc, a perceptive form
conceived at ordination, the innermost impression; (e) biến kế sở chấp sắc, a
momentary illusive form.
quang. Physical light, as contrasted with tâm quang light of the mind; every Buddha
has both, e.g. his halo, aura.
không không. Forms and emptiness; Reality is the non-dual Absolute.
tài. Beauty and talent.
tâm. Matter and mind, the material and immaterial.
thanh. The visible and audible.
thân. Rùpa-kàya (S). The physical body, as contrasted with the pháp thân
dharma-kàya, the immaterial, spiritual, or immortal body.
thị không. Form is emptiness.
The material, material appearance, or external manifestation, the visible. Form,
độ. A Buddha's material or visible world.
The quality of form, colour, or sexual attraction; one of lục trần.
Rùpa skandha (S). The skandha of rùpa, or that which has form, v.ngũ uẩn.
Atoms of things of form, or colour.
The flavour of sexual attraction, love of women.
Xem sắc nhập.
Ksanti (S). Patience, forbearance, enduring shame.
ba la mật. Ksànti-pàramità (S). Cardinal patience.
tiên nhân. Ksàntirsi (S). Name of Sàkyamuni in a previous incarnation, the patient
or enduring rsi.
Krodha; pratigha; dvesa (S). Anger, ire, wrath, resentment.
The poison of anger.
The fire of anger.
hỏa. The fire of anger.
sử. The messenger, or lictor of anger.
não. The passion or defilement of anger.
Quick-tempered, irascible, choleric.
A heart of anger.
Daurmanasya (S). Grief, distress.
Moha (S). Unconsciousness, delusion, perplexity, ignorance, folly, infatuation, stupidity.
It is intp by vô minh unenlightened, i.e. misled by appearances, taking the seeming for
real; from this unenlightened condition arises every kind of klesa, i.e. affliction or
defilement by the passions, etc. It is one of the tam độc three poisons tham desire, sân
dislike, si delusion.
Ignorance and desire, or unenlightened desire, ignorance being father, desire mother,
which produce all affliction and evil karma.
The darkness of the unenlightened condition.
ta. Siddhàrta (S). Prince Siddhàrta. Also Tất đạt đa.
The lamp of delusion, attracting the unenlightened as a lamp does the moth.
The samàdhi of ignorance, i.e. without mystic insight.
The poison of ignorance, or delusion, one of the three poisons.
Unenlightened and deluded, ignorant of the right way of seeing life and phenomena.
Ignorance and pride, or ignorant pride.
Unenlightened and led astray.
The common, unenlightened people. Also si tử.
The bond of unenlightenment.
The messenger, lictor, or affliction of unenlightenment.
An unenlightened mind, ignorance darkening the mind.
The klesa of moha, held in unenlightenment.
The turbid waters of ignorance; also to drink the water of delusion.
The net of ignorance.
quả. Purusakàraphala (S). Manliness, virility.
Vikrama (S). Leap over, surpass, excel; exempt from; to save. Super, transcendent.
bát. Surpassing the eight other schools, as does the teaching of the Lotus and
Nirvàna Sùtras, according to Thiên Thai.
To outshine, excel, transcend.
Out of the common.
To pass across the mundane existence; to go beyond the cycle of death and rebirth; to
leave for ever the life on earth, the world of becoming; to release (souls) from
linh. Metapsychic(al). Siêu linh học, metapsychics.
nhân. Uttari-manussa (P). Superman.
nguyệt quang. (Phật). Surpassing the sun and moon light Buddha.
vương. Vikramàditya (S) An Indian King.
nhiên. Supernatural, preternatural.
phàm. Extraordinary, out of the common.
quá. Samatikram (S). To go beyond, cross over, transgress.
tam giới. To cross over the threefold world.
sinh. To go beyond the cycle of death and rebirth.
Tịnh độ. To enter the Pure Land (of Amitàbha-Buddha).
tử. To go beyond the cycle of death and rebirth.
Lokottara (S). Surpassing the world, superior to anything in the world. Transcendental.
Also siêu việt.
gian trí. Jnànam-laukottara-tamam (S). Knowledge of the supreme supra world.
thoát. Xem siêu sinh. Supramundane, unwordly; free from human bondage; lofty,
Surpassing, supreme; to pass over, be exempt from.
Jàti (S). Life. Utpàda means coming forth, birth, production. Sinh means beget, bear,
birth, rebirth, born, begin, produce life, the living. One of the twelve nidànas
Life's retribution, i.e. the deeds done in this life produce their results in the next
Utpàdanirodha (S). Birth and death, production and annihilation; all life, all phenomena
have birth and death, beginning and end. The Tam luận tông Màdhyamika school deny this
in the Thực absolute, but recognize it in the Giả relative.
khứ lai. Coming into existence and ceasing to exist, past and future, are merely
relative terms and not true in reality.
nhị quán. Contemplation on birth and death.
The three regions tam giới of the constant round of rebirth.
The way or lot of those born, i.e. of mortality.
hóa sinh. Aupapàduka (S). One of the four forms of birth, i.e. by transformation,
without perentage, and in full maturity; thus do bodhisattvas come from the Tusita heaven;
the dhyàni-buddhas and bodhisattvas are also of such miraculous origin.
One of the four forms of existence.
nhị thân. The physical body of Buddha and his transformation body capable o any
form; the Nirmàna-kàya in its two forms of ứng and hóa.
Jìvitindriya (S). Breath of life; vitality, animation, liveliness.
The suffering at birth.
không. Empty at birth, i.e. ngã không, nhân không void of a permanent ego
Utpàda (S). Birth and what arises from it; cause of an act; the beginning and rise.
Rising, coming into existence; birth.
Stories of the previous incarnations of the Buddha and his disciples
Lão, Bệnh, Tử. Birth, age, sickness, death.
The mind or intelligence of the living; a living intelligent being. Khiến cho sinh linh
phải đồ thán, to cause people's misery; to reduce the people to destitution.
Vital force; life force; energy, vigour, strength.
Ajìva (S). Life, livehood.
Janaka-karma (S). Regenerative karma, productive karma.
Common or ordinary patience, i.e. of chúng sinh the masses.
nhân. The primary cause of birth.
xứ bồ tát. The second Bodhisattva on the right of the Bodhisattva of Space Hư không
tạng in the Garbhadhàtu.
pháp. The living and things, i.e. nhân pháp, ngã pháp, men and things, the self
and things; the hữu tình sentient, or those with emotions, i.e. the living; and vô
tình those without, i.e. insentient things.
nhị không quán. Contemplation on the emptiness of living and things.
nhị thân. The physical body and the spiritual body of the Buddha.
Buddha alive; a living Buddha.
quán. Meditation on birth.
Birth and rebirth (without end).
bến sông. The ford of life, or mortality.
thân. The physical body; also that of a Buddha in contrast with his dharmakàya; also
a bodhisattva's body when born into the mortal form.
cúng. The worship paid to Buddha-relics.
xá lợi. Buddha-relics.
thiên. The heavens where those living in this world can be reborn, i.e. from that the
Tứ thiên vương to the Phi tưởng thiên.
độ bát pháp. Eight methods, or ways to be reborn in the Pure Land.
Bhava (S). Process of existence, process of becoming.
dị diệt. Birth, stay, change (or decay), death.
vô sinh, vô sinh tức sinh. To be born is not to be born, not to be born is to be
born - an instance of the identity of contraries. It is an accepted doctrine of the Bát
nhã prajnà teaching and the ultimate doctrine of the Tam luận tông Màdhyamika
school. Birth, creation, life each is but a giả temporary term, in common statement tục
đế it is called birth, in truth chân đế it is not birth, in the relative it is
birth, in the absolute non-birth.
Samsàra (S). Birth and death; rebirth and redeath; life and death.
dã. The wildness of the mortal life.
giải thoát. Release from the bonds of births-and-deaths, nirv...na.
hải. The ocean of mortality, mortal life, luân hồi samsàra, or transmigration.
luân. Bhavacakra (S). The wheel of births-and-deaths, the round of mortality.
lưu. Gati (S). The flow of mortal life. Course of existence. Also dòng đời.
nê. The quagmire of mortal life.
ngạn. The shore of mortal life.
phược. The bonds of birth-and-rebirth.
tế. The region of births-and deaths.
tức Niết bàn. Mortality is Nirvàna.
trường dạ. The long night of births-and-deaths.
uyên. The abyss of the mortal life.
viên. The garden of life and death, this mortal world in which the unenlightened find
vô sinh. Birth is non-birth.
sinh tợ. Natural and similar, i.e. gold and silver, gold being the natural and
perfect metal and colour; silver being next, though it will tarnish; the two are also
called sinh sắc and khả nhiễm, i.e. the proper natural (unchanging) colour, and the
bách duyên kinh. Avadànasataka (S). Collection of a hundred avadànas.
kinh. Dreddhàvitakka-sutta (P). Also Niệm kinh.
Yugamdhara (S). Name of a river. Also Du căn đà la.
To number, count, enumerate, figure out, calculate, reason, reprimand; numbers, an
account, fate, destiny; flurried. It is also used for trí knowledge and for mental
content or conditions as in tâm số.
châu. Màlà (S). A rosery; to tell beads, which consist of various numbers,
generally 108. Also chuỗi hạt.
Sàmkhya (S). A non-buddhist sect. Also Tiến hóa nhị nguyên luận.
sư. Founder of the Sànkhya philosophy.
Nìyati (S). Fate, destiny. Also s- phận.
quán, sổ môn, sổ tức môn. Anàpàna (S). Xem sổ tức.
To count the breathings in order to calm mind and body for meditation.
quán. Anàprànasmrti (S), Anàpànasatti (P). Mindfulness on the in-and-out
The first of the thập địa ten Bodhisattva stages to perfect enlightenment and nirvàna.
Sơ hoan hỷ
địa. The first of the ten stages toward Buddhahood, that of joy.
biến. The initiator of change, or mutation, i.e. the àlaya-vijnàna, so called
because the other vijnànas are derived from it.
tâm. The initial determination to seek enlightenment.
Srotàpanna (S). The initial fruit, or achievement, the stage of Srotàpanna, illusion
being discarded and the stream of enlightenment entered.
hướng. The aiming at sơ quả.
na thức. The initial ksana, initial consciousness, i.e. the eighth or
àlaya-vijnàna, from which arises consciousness.
kỳ. The first of the three asamkhyeya or incalculable kalpas.
The initial resolve or mind of the novice.
The first stage of dhyàna meditation.
Phạm thiên. Devas in the realms of form, who have purged themselves from all
định. The first dhyàna, the first degree of dhyàna meditation, which produces
rebirth in the first dhyàna heavens.
thiên. The first of the four dhyàna heavens, corresponding to the first stage of
giáo. A term of the Pháp tướng tông Dharma-laksana school, the first of the
three periods of the Buddha's teaching in which he overcame the ideas of heterodox
teachers that the ego is real, and preached the four noble truths and the five skandhas,
The first of the ten stages, or resting places, of the Bodhisattva.Trụ is the resting
place, or stage for a particular course of development; địa is the position or rank
attained by the spiritual characteristics achieved in this place.
The initial stage on the road to enlightenment.
A place; where, what, that which, he (etc.) who.
kế. That by which the mind is circumscribed, i.e. impregnated with the false view
that the ego and things possess reality.
tri. Parijneya (S). To be known accurately.
The subject of the thesis of a syllogism in contrast with năng biệt the predicate; that
which is differentiated.
That which is brought forward or out; a quotation.
Alambana (S). That upon which something rests or depends, hence object of perception; that
which is the environmental or contributory cause; attendant circumstances.
duyên duyên. Adhipati-pratyàya (S). The influence of one factor in causing others,
one of the tứ duyên.
tạng. Cariyàpitaka (P). Collection of the conducting.
The one which is transformed or instructed.
That one has, what there is, whatever exists.
A thesis; that which is set up.
That which is estimated; the content of reasoning, or judgment.
Phật. Nisyandabuddha (S).
Upaklista (S). That which is soiled, or stained.
That which is done, or to be done, or made, or set up etc.
thuyên. That which is expouded, explained, or commented on.
chướng. Jneyàvarana (S). Hindrance of the one's own knowledge; the barrier of the
known, arising from regarding the seeming as real.
y. That on which all knowledge depends, i.e. the àlayavijnàna, the other vijnànas
being derived from it.
Asraya (S). That on which anything depends, the basis of the vijnànas. Abode, deposit.
A hill, mountain; a monastery.
huệ tự tại thông vương. Sàgara varadhara buddhi vikrìdità bhidjna (S) The
name under which Ananda is to reappear as Buddha.
The gate of a monastery; a monastery.
tăng. Hill-monk, self deprecatory term used by monks. A monk dwelling apart from
Mountain world, i.e. monasteries.
To rear, feed, domesticate; restrain; cattle.
Tirascina (S). Animals, beasts. Cảnh giới súc sinh. Tirascinayoni (S). Rebirth as an
animal; animal womb.
đạo. The way of rebirth as an animal.
giới. The animal kingdom.
nhân. The cause, or karma, og rebirth as an animal.
thú. The destiny of rebirth as an animal.
bái. Namasyà (S). Veneration, worship.
Upàdhyàya (S). A host, army; a leader, preceptor, teacher, model, Buddhist priest.
The Mother Superior (of a Buddhist nunnery).
bác. A senior
Model teacher. Vạn thế sư biểu, the master of all times, i.e. Confucius Khổng tử.
A buddhist nun. Also ni cô.
The superior of a Buddhist monastery, Buddhist abbot.
The teacher's duty.
Teacher and student, master and pupil; junior fellow-student.
Teacher and student.
mang. A profligate bonze.
Master and elder; senior fellow-student.
Master and friends.
Mistress; master's wife.
Sư nói sư
phải, vãi nói vãi hay. There's a reason for everything.
Guru, master, teacher.
To treat as a preceptor or teacher.
Disciple of a disciple.
The teacher of one's teacher. Patriarch.
Transmitted directly from the teacher.
Simha (S). A lion. Buddha, likened to the lion, the king of animals, in respect of his
âm. Simhaghosa (S). "Lion's voice", a Buddha south-east of our universe,
third son of Mahàbhijna.
du hý tam muội. The joyous samàdhi which is likened to the play of the lion with
his prey. When a Buddha enters this degree of samàdhi he causes the earth to tremble, and
the purgatories to give up their inmates.
giác. Buddhasimha (S)
giáp vương. Simhahànu (S). Great father of the Buddha.
Sư tử hống.
Simhanàda (S). The lion's roar, a term designating authoritative or powerful preaching.
As the lion's roar makes all the animals tremble, so Buddha's preaching overthrows all
other religions, subdues devils, conquers heretics, and arrests the misery of life.
nhũ. Lion's milk, like bodhi-enlightenment, which is able to annihilate countless
ages of the karma of affliction.
phấn tấn. The lion aroused to anger, i.e. the Buddha's power of arousing awe.
quốc. Simhala (S). Sri-Lanka.
Sư tử tòa.
Simhàsana (S). A lion throne, or couch. A Buddha throne or seat; wherever the Buddha
sits, even the bare ground; a royal throne.
Sư tử tôn
giả. Aryasimha (S). The 24th patriarch.
trụ, Sư tử khải. Harivarman (S)
trùng thực sư tử nhục. Just as no animal eats a dead lion, but it is destroyed
by worms produced within itself, so no outside force can destroy Buddhism, only evil monks
within it can destroy it.
tướng. Simdhadhvaja (S). "Lion-flag", a Buddha south-east of our
universe, fourth son of Mahàbhijna.
vương. The lion king, Buddha.
Artha (S). Affair, concern, matter; action, practice; phenomena; to serve. It is
"practice", or the thing, affair, matter in contrast with lí theory, or the
Phenomenal hindrances to entry into nirvàna, such as desire etc.; Lí chướng are
noumenal hindrances, such as false doctrines, etc.
Salvation by observing the five commandments (precepts), the ten good deeds, etc.
Phenomenal fire; also fire-worship.
Practice and theory; phenomenon and noumenom, activity and principle, or the absolute;
phenomena ever change, the underlying principle, being absolute, neither changes nor acts,
it is the chân như.
tam thiên. The three thousand phenomenal activities and three thousand principles, a
term ođ the Thiên Thai school.
Discussion of phenomena in contrast with lí luận.
giới. The phenomenal world, phenomenal existence. Sự pháp thân, the
Buddha-nature in practice. Lí pháp thân, the Buddha-nature in principle or essence, or
the truth itself.
biệt thức. Vastuprativikalpa-vijnàna (S). Knowledge of the discriminating of
Teaching dealing with phenomena. The characterization by Thiên Thai of the Tripitaka or
Hìnayàna teaching as Giới nội sự sư within the three realms of desire, form, and
formlessness; and the Biệt giáo different teaching as Giới ngoại sự sư outside
or superior to those realms; the one dealt with the activities of time and sense, the
other transcended these but was still involved in the transient.
vô ngại. No obstruction between thing and thing; each "thing-event"
involves every other, and is seen to be self-determinative, self-generated.
tích. Traces of the deeds or life of an individual; biography. Story, tale.
quy ước. Conventional truth.
Phenomenon, affair, practice. The practices of the esoterics are called sự tướng bộ
as contrasted with their open teaching called giáo tướng bộ. Sự tướng thiền
sư, a mystic, or monk in meditation, yet busy with affairs: an epithet of reproach.
To send, cause; a messenger sứ; a pursuer, molester, lictor, disturber, troubler, intp
as phiền não klesa, affliction, distress, wordly cares, vexations, and as consequent
reincarnation. There are categories of 10, 16, 98, 112 and 128 such troublers, e.g.
desire, hatred, stupour, pride, doubt, erroneous views, etc. leading to painful results in
future rebirths, they are karma-messengers executing its purpose.